Anand Arni is a Distinguished Fellow of the Geostrategy Programme at the Takshashila Institution, Bangalore. He was formerly Special Secretary in the Research & Analysis Wing (R&AW). A career intelligence officer, he served in India’s external intelligence agency for 37 years, retiring in 2012. In the R&AW, he spent over 25 years in dealing with issues related to Pakistan and Afghanistan. He has also dealt with counter-insurgency in the Northeast and was a part of the team sent to Kandahar to negotiate with the hostage takers of IC 814. Post-retirement, he continues to focus on India’s western neighbours. He writes, lectures and participates in conferences on India’s ties with this area.